The ingress of leukocytes into sites of inflammation is crucial for the pathogenesis of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Chemokines, their receptors and cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in this process. Here, the roles of the most relevant chemokines, chemokine receptors and CAMs are briefly reviewed. There have been several attempts to target chemokine- and CAM-mediated pathways in preclinical studies using animal models of arthritis, and in a limited number of human studies. In this review, the most recent advances in anti-chemokine and anti-adhesion therapeutic strategies are summarized.