Objectives: Production of beta-lactamases is the main mechanism of beta-lactam resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Despite the current use of clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam, the prevalence of class A and class C enzymes is increasing worldwide, demanding new beta-lactamase inhibitors. Here we report the antimicrobial properties of AVE1330A, a representative of a novel class of bridged bicyclico[3.2.1]diazabicyclo-octanones in combination with ceftazidime.
Materials and methods: IC(50) and kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis reaction were used to characterize beta-lactamase inhibition by AVE1330A. MICs for >600 strains were determined with the combination ceftazidime/AVE1330A at a fixed ratio of 4:1.
Results: IC(50)s of AVE1330A for TEM-1 and P99 enzymes were 0.0023 mg/L (8 nM) and 0.023 mg/L (80 nM), compared with 0.027 mg/L (130 nM) and 205.1 mg/L (1 x 10(6) nM) of clavulanic acid and 0.013 mg/L (40 nM) and 1.6 mg/L (5000 nM) of tazobactam. A highly stable covalent complex led to a low turnover of AVE1330A. MICs of ceftazidime/AVE1330A for Enterobacteriaceae were at least eight-fold lower than those of ceftazidime alone. All of the Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter and Proteus mirabilis strains, including ceftazidime-resistant isolates, were inhibited at 4-8 mg/L. Only 2 mg/L were required to inhibit other Proteeae, Enterobacter, Salmonella and Serratia.
Conclusion: The combination of ceftazidime with AVE1330A exhibited broad-spectrum activity against Ambler class A- and class C-producing Enterobacteriaceae.