The human tumor microenvironment: invasive (needle) measurement of oxygen and interstitial fluid pressure

Semin Radiat Oncol. 2004 Jul;14(3):249-58. doi: 10.1016/j.semradonc.2004.04.006.


Invasive needle-based assessments of the extracellular environment in human tumors have yielded important prognostic information that has shaped the direction of future translational research and begun to influence clinical practice. This review focuses on electrode measurements of oxygenation in human tumors, particularly in relation to the practicalities of applying these techniques in the clinic and the relationship to patient outcome. Elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been shown to be an important independent prognostic factor in cervix cancer. The pathophysiology of elevated IFP is discussed, along with possible explanations for the strong influence on patient outcome and directions for future research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Hypoxia / physiology
  • Extracellular Fluid / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Microelectrodes*
  • Needles
  • Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Oxygen / analysis
  • Oxygen Consumption*
  • Polarography
  • Pressure


  • Oxygen