A comprehensive study of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Aug 15;37(4):557-70. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.04.035.


Oxidative stress has been increasingly postulated as a major contributor to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia (PE), although evidence supporting this hypothesis remains inconsistent. This study aimed to analyze in depth the potential role of oxidative stress as a mechanism underlying endothelial damage in PE and the pregnant woman's susceptibility to the disease. To this end, indicative markers of lipoperoxidation and protein oxidation and changes in antioxidant defense systems were measured in blood samples from 53 women with PE and 30 healthy pregnant controls. Results, analyzed in relation to disease severity, showed PE women, compared with women with normal pregnancy, to have: (1) significantly enhanced antioxidant enzyme SOD and GPx activities in erythrocytes; (2) similar plasma alpha-tocopherol levels and significantly increased alpha-tocopherol/lipids in both mild and severe PE; (3) significantly decreased plasma vitamin C and protein thiol levels; (4) similar erythrocyte glutathione content, total plasma antioxidant capacity, and whole plasma oxidizability values; (5) significantly elevated plasma total lipid hydroperoxides, the major initial reaction products of lipid peroxidation, in severe PE; (6) no intracellular or extracellular increases in any of the secondary end-products of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde or lipoperoxides; (7) similar oxidative damage to proteins quantified by plasma carbonyl levels, immunoblot analysis, and advanced oxidation protein products assessment; and (8) significantly elevated and severity-related soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels reflecting endothelial dysfunction. No correlations were found among plasma levels of circulating adhesion molecules with regard to lipid and protein oxidation markers. Globally, these data reflect mild oxidative stress in blood of preeclamptic women, as oxidative processes seem to be counteracted by the physiologic activation of antioxidant enzymes and by the high plasma vitamin E levels that would prevent further oxidative damage. These results do not permit us to conclude that oxidative stress might be a pathogenetically relevant process causally contributing to the disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Female
  • Free Radicals
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Immunochemistry
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Lipid Peroxides
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Pre-Eclampsia / metabolism*
  • Pregnancy
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism
  • Vitamin E / metabolism
  • alpha-Tocopherol / blood


  • Antioxidants
  • Free Radicals
  • Lipid Peroxides
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Vitamin E
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione
  • alpha-Tocopherol
  • Oxygen