Gene array analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica FlhD and FlhC: regulation of enzymes affecting synthesis and degradation of carbamoylphosphate

Microbiology. 2004 Jul;150(Pt 7):2289-2300. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.26814-0.


This paper focuses on global gene regulation by FlhD/FlhC in enteric bacteria. Even though Yersinia enterocolitica FlhD/FlhC can complement an Escherichia coli flhDC mutant for motility, it is not known if the Y. enterocolitica FlhD/FlhC complex has an effect on metabolism similar to E. coli. To study metabolic gene regulation, a partial Yersinia enterocolitica 8081c microarray was constructed and the expression patterns of wild-type cells were compared to an flhDC mutant strain at 25 and 37 degrees C. The overlap between the E. coli and Y. enterocolitica FlhD/FlhC regulated genes was 25 %. Genes that were regulated at least fivefold by FlhD/FlhC in Y. enterocolitica are genes encoding urocanate hydratase (hutU), imidazolone propionase (hutI), carbamoylphosphate synthetase (carAB) and aspartate carbamoyltransferase (pyrBI). These enzymes are part of a pathway that is involved in the degradation of L-histidine to L-glutamate and eventually leads into purine/pyrimidine biosynthesis via carbamoylphosphate and carbamoylaspartate. A number of other genes were regulated at a lower rate. In two additional experiments, the expression of wild-type cells grown at 4 or 25 degrees C was compared to the same strain grown at 37 degrees C. The expression of the flagella master operon flhD was not affected by temperature, whereas the flagella-specific sigma factor fliA was highly expressed at 25 degrees C and reduced at 4 and 37 degrees C. Several other flagella genes, all of which are under the control of FliA, exhibited a similar temperature profile. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that temperature regulation of flagella genes might be mediated by the flagella-specific sigma factor FliA and not the flagella master regulator FlhD/FlhC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Carbamyl Phosphate / metabolism*
  • Culture Media
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Flagella / physiology
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Mutation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Temperature
  • Trans-Activators / genetics*
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Yersinia enterocolitica / enzymology*
  • Yersinia enterocolitica / genetics
  • Yersinia enterocolitica / growth & development
  • Yersinia enterocolitica / metabolism


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Culture Media
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • flhC protein, E coli
  • flhD protein, E coli
  • Carbamyl Phosphate