A patient with fibrosing alveolitis developed a diffuse large B-cell (DLBC) lymphoma that expressed CD20 and CD30. After an initial response, the lymphoma relapsed and was salvaged with further chemotherapy. After another remission of 3 years, a pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which expressed CD10, CD19, CD22, CD79a, CD34 and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase, developed and led to death. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene showed that the initial lymphoma and its relapse were clonally related. At leukemic relapse, 2 clones related to the initial and relapsed lymphoma clones were present. DLBC lymphomas arise from post-follicle center B cells, whereas ALL arises from pregerminal B cells. Therefore, a direct transformation of DLBC lymphoma to ALL appears unlikely. The overall features suggest instead separate lymphoma and leukemic evolution from a common mutated B-cell precursor rather than transformation of DLBC lymphoma to ALL.