Enhanced effect of glycyl-L-glutamine on mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro

Reprod Biomed Online. 2004 Jul;9(1):59-69. doi: 10.1016/s1472-6483(10)62111-6.


A comparison of the effects of replacing L -glutamine with either glycyl-L-glutamine or alanyl-L-glutamine in a KSOM-type medium on the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro has been made. Alanyl-L-glutamine has no significant effect on the rates of blastocyst formation, onset or completion of hatching, and on the numbers of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells that develop. Glycyl-L-glutamine has no effect on the rate of blastocyst formation; it stimulates slightly the onset of hatching, but significantly increases the numbers of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells that develop. Embryo transfer experiments comparing media containing either glutamine or glycyl-L-glutamine have not produced any gross abnormal fetal development. Recently, alanyl-L-glutamine has been used to replace glutamine in media for the culture of human preimplantation embryos. The results in this paper suggest that glycyl-L-glutamine may be a better choice of dipeptide.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Blastocyst / cytology
  • Blastocyst / drug effects*
  • Blastocyst / physiology
  • Culture Media / chemistry
  • Dipeptides / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Embryo Culture Techniques
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Embryonic Development / drug effects
  • Embryonic Development / physiology
  • Female
  • Glutamine / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Zygote / drug effects


  • Amino Acids
  • Culture Media
  • Dipeptides
  • Glutamine
  • glycylglutamine
  • alanylglutamine