The clinical and pulmonary function test evidence of abnormal airway function in infants with BPD is now well established. Studies have shown persistence of airway obstruction into childhood and evidence of residual dysfunction into adulthood. Furthermore, preterm neonates who have been mechanically ventilated but do not meet any of the BPD definitions also have residual pulmonary dysfunction during infancy. As an increasing number of very low birth weight infants survive in the surfactant era, care must be taken to note that their airways are likely to be extremely compliant and thereby exceedingly susceptible to airway barotrauma in the neonatal period. The long-term consequences of airway injury could lead to residual abnormal airway function during infancy. It is hoped that barotrauma can be minimized substantially with a reduction in both the magnitude and duration of ventilatory support following surfactant therapy. With the advent of user-friendly commercial pulmonary function testing equipment, most neonatal follow-up services should include a comprehensive pulmonary follow-up ancillary to the existing neurodevelopmental follow-up services and may thereby reduce the severity of respiratory morbidities and the need for hospital readmissions.