Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of in vivo studies using genetically engineered mouse models. Atherosclerosis research using mice began with the invention of traditional atherosclerotic mice including low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, which provided tremendous progress in atherosclerosis research. Since then, a number of modified atherosclerotic mouse models have been reported to generate lesions that more closely characterize human atherosclerotic lesions. Those modifications include inflammation, hypertension, proteinases and extracellular matrix, glucose metabolism, and immune systems. This article focuses on various kinds of mouse models with atherosclerosis and their contributions to the current advances of research.