Thailand's comprehensive national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been extensively documented since the beginning of epidemic. Substantial progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS has been made because awareness of the problem was raised. Top-level political commitment and multisectoral strategies mobilized funds and human resources to implement the control program at all levels. Behavioral change resulting in increased condom use in brothels on a national scale rose from virtually nil to more than 95%. This was accompanied by a 90% reduction of the sexually transmitted disease rate. In parallel, the rate of new HIV infections dropped by 80%. Despite these achievements, there remains an urgent need to continue efforts to ensure universal and unfailing condom use. Further, Thailand needs to establish pragmatic innovative approaches to reduce transmission, especially among injection drug users, women, and youth, as well as to develop effective strategies for implementation of antiretroviral treatment. Further strategies also need to consider the changing cultural, social, and economic characteristics of the Thai populations.