A national longitudinal study of the psychological consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks: reactions, impairment, and help-seeking

Psychiatry. Summer 2004;67(2):105-17. doi: 10.1521/psyc.


This article examines the evolution of psychological and behavioral reactions following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in a nationally representative sample, and describes where people turned for support, information, and counseling. From November 9 to November 28, 2001, we resurveyed 395 (71%) of the original 560 adults 19 years or older within the United States who participated in our national random-digit-dialing telephone survey conducted on September 14 to September 16, 2001, about their terrorism-related psychological distress and behavior. Sixteen percent of adults had persistent distress, reporting one or more substantial distress symptoms in both September and November. Adults with persistent distress reported accomplishing less at work (65%); avoiding public gathering places (24%); and using alcohol, medications, or other drugs to relax, sleep, or feel better because of worries about terrorism (38%). Seventy-five percent talked with family and friends; however, 43% reported sometimes feeling unable to share their terrorism-related thoughts and feelings with others because it made others uncomfortable. Few reported receiving counseling or information about psychological distress from general medical providers (11%). These findings suggest that a significant number of adults across the country were continuing to experience terrorism-related distress and disruption of their daily lives approximately 2 months after September 11; many turned to family and friends for support, but at times many felt uncomfortable doing so, and few used clinicians as a source of information or support. Clinicians and policymakers should consider how the healthcare system and other community organizations might provide a coordinated community-wide response for individuals needing information and counseling following terrorist events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adult
  • Counseling
  • Fear
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / therapy*
  • Terrorism / psychology*