Kidney disease as a risk factor for recurrent cardiovascular disease and mortality

Am J Kidney Dis. 2004 Aug;44(2):198-206. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2004.04.024.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Few studies have evaluated the effect of CKD on cardiovascular events in a diverse community-based population with underlying CVD.

Methods: Data for subjects with preexisting CVD were pooled from 4 publicly available, community-based, longitudinal studies: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Framingham Offspring Study. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (<1 mL/s/1.73 m2). The primary study outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction (MI), fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome included only MI and fatal CHD.

Results: A total of 4,278 subjects satisfied inclusion criteria, and 759 subjects (17.7%) had CKD. Mean follow-up was 86 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were observed in 1,703 (39.8%) and 857 subjects (20.0%), respectively. Incidence rates for the primary and secondary outcomes were greater in persons with CKD compared with those without CKD (62.5% versus 34.9% and 30.6% versus 17.8%, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios for the primary and secondary outcomes were 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.52) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55), respectively.

Conclusion: The presence of CKD in a community-based population with preexisting CVD is associated with an increased risk for recurrent CVD outcomes. This increased risk persists after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology
  • Coronary Disease / mortality
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology