Development and comparison of four real-time polymerase chain reaction systems for specific detection and quantification of Zea mays L

J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 28;52(15):4632-7. doi: 10.1021/jf049789d.


Four real-time polymerase chain reaction systems aiming at the specific detection and quantification of maize DNA are described. They have been developed in four independent laboratories targeting different maize sequences, i.e., alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1), high mobility group protein (hmga), invertase A (ivr1), and zein, respectively. They were all fully specific, showing a very similar quantification accuracy along a number of distantly related maize cultivars and being either single or low copy number genes. They were highly sensitive and exhibited limits of quantification below 100 maize genomic copies. In consequence, they are considered suitable for use as maize specific endogenous reference genes in DNA analyses, including GMO quantitative tests.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA, Plant / analysis*
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Zea mays / genetics*
  • Zein / genetics


  • DNA, Plant
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • Zein
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase