A-type lamins are localized at the nuclear envelope and in the nucleoplasm, and are implicated in human diseases called laminopathies. In a yeast two-hybrid screen with lamin C, we identified a novel widely expressed 171-kDa protein that we named Lamin companion 1 (Lco1). Three independent biochemical assays showed direct binding of Lco1 to the C-terminal tail of A-type lamins with an affinity of 700 nM. Lco1 also bound the lamin B1 tail with lower affinity (2 microM). Ectopic Lco1 was found primarily in the nucleoplasm and colocalized with endogenous intranuclear A-type lamins in HeLa cells. Overexpression of prelamin A caused redistribution of ectopic Lco1 to the nuclear rim together with ectopic lamin A, confirming association of Lco1 with lamin A in vivo. Whereas the major C-terminal lamin-binding fragment of Lco1 was cytoplasmic, the N-terminal Lco1 fragment localized in the nucleoplasm upon expression in cells. Furthermore, full-length Lco1 was nuclear in cells lacking A-type lamins, showing that A-type lamins are not required for nuclear targeting of Lco1. We conclude that Lco1 is a novel intranuclear lamin-binding protein. We hypothesize that Lco1 is involved in organizing the internal lamin network and potentially relevant as a laminopathy disease gene or modifier.