Early environmental regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: characterization of intracellular mediators and potential genomic target sites

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1024:182-212. doi: 10.1196/annals.1321.099.


Environmental conditions in early life permanently alter the development of glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to acute or chronic stress. In part, these effects can involve an activation of ascending serotonergic pathways and subsequent changes in the expression of transcription factors that might drive glucocorticoid receptor expression in the hippocampus. This paper summarizes the evidence in favor of these pathways as well as recent studies describing regulatory targets within the chromatin structure of the promoter region of the rat hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor gene.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Environment
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genome
  • Hippocampus / metabolism*
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism
  • Maternal Behavior
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics*
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics
  • Stress, Physiological / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • Transcription Factors