Natural populations of diploid Arabidopsis lyrata exhibit the sporophytic type of self-incompatibility system characteristic of Brassicaceae, in which complicated dominance interactions among alleles in the diploid parent determine self-recognition phenotypes of both pollen and stigma. The purpose of this study was to investigate how polyploidy affects this already complex system. One tetraploid population (Arabidopsis lyrata ssp kawasakiana from Japan) showed complete self-compatibility and produced viable selfed progeny for at least three generations subsequent to field collection. In contrast, individuals from a second tetraploid population (A. lyrata ssp petraea from Austria) were strongly self-incompatible (SI). Segregation of SI genotypes in this population followed Mendelian patterns based on a tetrasomic model of inheritance, with two to four alleles per individual, independent segregation of alleles, and little evidence of dosage effects of alleles found in multiple copies. Similar to results from diploids, anomalous compatibility patterns involving particular combinations of individuals occurred at a low frequency in the tetraploids, suggesting altered dominance in certain genetic backgrounds that could be due to the influence of a modifier locus. Overall, dominance relationships among S-alleles in self-incompatible tetraploid families were remarkably similar to those in related diploids, suggesting that this very important and complicated locus has not undergone extensive modification subsequent to polyploidization.