Inhibition of mutagenicity of food-derived heterocyclic amines by sulforaphane--a constituent of broccoli

Indian J Exp Biol. 2003 Mar;41(3):216-9.


Sulforaphane, a constituent of broccoli was investigated for its antimutagenic potential against different classes of cooked food mutagens (heterocyclic amines). These include imidazoazaarenes such as 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); pyridoindole derivatives such as 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2); and, dipyridoimidazole derivative such as 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1). Tests were carried out by Ames Salmonella/reversion assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (frame shift mutation sensitive) and TA100 (base pair mutation sensitive) bacterial strains in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Results of these in vitro antimutagenicity studies strongly suggest that sulforaphane is a potent inhibitor of the mutagenicity induced by imidazoazaarenes such as IQ, MeIQ and MeIQx (approximately 60% inhibition) and moderately active against pyridoindole derivatives such as Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 (32-48% inhibition), but ineffective against dipyridoimidazole derivative (Glu-P-1) in TA 100.

MeSH terms

  • Amines / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Brassica / chemistry*
  • Food Analysis*
  • Male
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Mutagens / toxicity*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics


  • Amines
  • Mutagens