RNA is the only molecule known to recapitulate all biochemical functions of life: definition, control and transmission of genetic information, creation of defined three-dimensional structures, enzymatic activities and storage of energy. Because of its versatility and thanks to several recent scientific breakthroughs, RNA became the focus of intense research in molecular medicine at the beginning of the millennium. In particular, mRNA can be seen as a safe and efficient alternative to protein-, recombinant virus- or DNA-based therapies in the field of vaccination. This review summarises the most remarkable advances in this area and presents the advantages and limits of the five different mRNA-based vaccination methods. The paper will present the official, industrial and financial aspects of mRNA-based vaccination that are paving the way for therapeutic and prophylactic drugs with mRNA as the active component.