Tuberculous meningitis with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis: a clinicoradiological study

Neurol India. 2004 Jun;52(2):194-6.


Background and aims: This study aims at evaluating the clinical and radiological outcome of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) patients with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis.

Material and methods: Diagnosis of TBM was based on clinical, CT scan or MRI and CSF criteria, and that of miliary tuberculosis on chest radiograph. Detailed clinical evaluation was done in all. Severity of meningitis was graded into Grades I, II and III. Complete hemogram, serum chemistry and Montaux tests were performed. The recovery was defined on the basis of 6 months Barthel index score as poor, partial or complete.

Results: 20 out of 165 patients with TBM had pulmonary miliary tuberculosis. Their mean age was 30 years; there was one child and 13 patients were females. The mean duration of symptoms was 6.3 months. Montoux test was negative in 9 patients. Six patients were in stage I, 3 in stage II, and 11 in stage III meningitis. Hemoglobin was below 12 gm% in 13 and liver dysfunction and hypocalcaemia was present in 8 and 18 patients respectively. CT scan was abnormal in 16 patients and revealed hydrocephalus (10), granuloma (7), exudates (3) and infarction (1). MRI was abnormal in 7 out of 8 patients and 3 of these patients had normal CT scan. MRI revealed multiple granuloma in 7 patients and exudates in 2. At 6 months, 2 patients died, 10 had complete, 2 had partial and 4 had poor recovery.

Conclusion: TBM with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis was commoner amongst females who were anemic and hypocalcaemic. MRI revealed multiple granuloma and the majority of the patients improved.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal / complications*
  • Tuberculosis, Meningeal / diagnosis*
  • Tuberculosis, Miliary / complications*
  • Tuberculosis, Miliary / diagnosis*