Combined quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging of human prostate cancer

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2004 Aug;20(2):279-87. doi: 10.1002/jmri.20113.


Purpose: To differentiate prostate carcinoma from healthy peripheral zone and central gland using quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and two-dimensional (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) combined into one clinical protocol.

Materials and methods: Twenty-three prostate cancer patients were studied with a combined DCE-MRI and MRSI protocol. Cancer regions were localized by histopathology of whole mount sections after radical prostatectomy. Pharmacokinetic modeling parameters, K(trans) and k(ep), as well as the relative levels of the prostate metabolites citrate, choline, and creatine, were determined in cancer, healthy peripheral zone (PZ), and in central gland (CG).

Results: K(trans) and k(ep) were higher (P < 0.05) in cancer and in CG than in normal PZ. The (choline + creatine)/citrate ratio was elevated in cancer compared to the PZ and CG (P < 0.05). While a (choline + creatine)/citrate ratio above 0.68 was found to be a reliable indicator of cancer, elevated K(trans) was only a reliable cancer indicator in the diagnosis of individual patients. K(trans) and (choline + creatine)/citrate ratios in cancer were poorly correlated (Pearson r(2) = 0.07), and thus microvascular and metabolic abnormalities may have complementary value in cancer diagnosis.

Conclusion: The combination of high-resolution spatio-vascular information from dynamic MRI and metabolic information from MRSI has excellent potential for improved localization and characterization of prostate cancer in a clinical setting. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;20:279-287.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Citric Acid / metabolism
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate / anatomy & histology
  • Prostate / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery


  • Citric Acid