Noninvasive carcinoma of the breast: angiogenesis and cell proliferation

Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004 Aug;128(8):893-6. doi: 10.5858/2004-128-893-NCOTBA.


Context: Angiogenesis and the cell proliferation index can predict the prognosis of invasive breast carcinoma; however, little is known of their roles in noninvasive tumor.

Objective: To investigate the correlation of microvessel density and cell proliferation index with other histologic parameters (histologic type, nuclear grade, and mitotic count) in 65 cases of noninvasive carcinoma of the breast.

Design: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 65 cases of carcinoma in situ of the breast were immunostained with antibody against factor VIII antigen and proliferation-associated nuclear antigen MIB-1. The microvessel density was measured by counting the total number of microvessels around the carcinoma in situ per 10 low-power microscopic fields. The cell proliferation index was calculated by counting MIB-1-positive nuclei in 100 tumor cells. A chi2 test and Spearman rank correlation test were used for statistical analysis.

Results: The microvessel density and cell proliferation index of comedo-type, high-nuclear-grade ductal carcinomas in situ are significantly higher than those of either noncomedo type ductal carcinomas in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ (P <.001).

Conclusions: Angiogenesis and the cell proliferation index are active biological processes and may be considered as markers to separate low- and high-risk patients with noninvasive breast carcinomas.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Carcinoma in Situ / blood supply*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / blood supply*
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / blood supply*
  • Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Nucleus / chemistry
  • Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitotic Index
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology*
  • Staining and Labeling


  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Neoplasm Proteins