Aims: Adipocytokines, products from adipose tissue, have biological activities on the vascular system, and may affect diabetic angiopathy. In this study, we assessed the relationship between adiposity and plasma adipocytokine levels, and investigated the clinical significance of adiposity and plasma adipocytokine levels on diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy in Type 2 diabetic subjects.
Methods: We studied 231 Japanese Type 2 diabetic subjects (135 men and 96 women, aged 60.4 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 24.8 +/- 5.2 kg/m2). We measured adipocytokine [adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] levels, lipid profiles and urine albumin excretion. We also performed optic fundus examination and measured carotid intramedia thickness (IMT) using B-mode ultrasonography, and the localization of fat with abdominal computed tomography. A group of 93 subjects with microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria was compared with the other 148 to assess the effect on nephropathy. A group of 191 eyes with simple retinopathy or more advanced changes was compared with 263 eyes without retinal changes to assess the effect on retinopathy.
Results: Plasma adiponectin level was negatively correlated with both visceral (r = -0.37, P < 0.01) and subcutaneous (r = -0.25, P < 0.01) fat areas. Resistin concentration was positively related with visceral fat area (r = 0.15, P < 0.05). Adiponectin concentration was positively correlated with age (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). TNF-alpha was correlated with IMT (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) after correction for age. Logistic regression analysis indicates a 4085 times greater chance of having retinopathy with a one unit increase in TNF-alpha (pmol/l) and a 30.64 times greater chance of having nephropathy with one unit increase in leptin (nmol/l).
Conclusions: The present observations suggest that visceral and subcutaneous fat has an impact on microangiopathy as well as macroangiopathy, possibly through different adipocytokines.
Copyright 2004 Diabetes UK