Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 2: the tip of an iceberg?

Clin Exp Immunol. 2004 Aug;137(2):225-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02561.x.


Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) are conditions characterized by the association of two or more organ-specific disorders. Type 2 APS is defined by the occurrence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clinically overt disorders are considered only the tip of the autoimmune iceberg, since latent forms are much more frequent. Historical, clinical, genetic, and immunological aspects of Type 2 APS are reviewed. Furthermore, data on 146 personal cases of Type 2 APS are also reported.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Addison Disease / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis*
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / genetics
  • Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / immunology
  • Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis