Genetic mapping of genes conferring permethrin resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

Insect Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;13(4):379-86. doi: 10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004.00495.x.


Resistance to permethrin in an East African population of the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae is multifactorial. A mutated sodium channel allele and enhanced insecticide metabolism contribute to the resistance phenotype. We used microsatellite markers to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with permethrin resistance. Two major and one minor QTL were identified. The first QTL, rtp1, colocalizes with the sodium channel gene on chromosome 2L thus further supporting the importance of mutations in this gene in conferring permethrin resistance. The second two loci are located on the third chromosome and one of these, rtp2, flanks a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes. Further detailed mapping of these regions will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to insecticides.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / drug effects
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • DNA Primers
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Permethrin / toxicity*
  • Quantitative Trait Loci / genetics
  • Sodium Channels / genetics


  • DNA Primers
  • Sodium Channels
  • Permethrin