Family history of psychiatric disorder and low self-confidence: predictors of depressive symptoms at 12-month follow-up

J Affect Disord. 1992 Jul;25(3):197-212. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(92)90006-r.


We examined effects of two risk factors for depression, family psychiatric history and Low Self-Confidence, on (1) baseline characteristics of major depression and (2) depressive symptoms one year later. Subjects (N = 104) in the midst of a depressive episode were assigned to one of three family history subtypes identified in earlier research: Pure Depressive Disease (PDD) Depressive Spectrum Disease (DSD), Sporadic Depressive Disease (SDD). Results indicate that effects of Self-Confidence on depressive symptoms at follow-up varied by family subtype. In multivariate analyses with controls for demographic and illness characteristics, the mean follow-up depressive score was below the depressive threshold for PDD subjects and above it for SDD subjects regardless of the level of Self-Confidence. In contrast, DSD subjects with High Self-Confidence reported significantly more symptoms than those with Low Self-Confidence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child of Impaired Parents / psychology*
  • Dependency, Psychological
  • Depressive Disorder / genetics*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personality Development*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Concept*