Review on human toxoplasmosis in Malaysia: the past, present and prospective future

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004 Mar;35(1):24-30.


We reviewed various studies regarding human toxoplasmosis in Malaysia. They showed a varying prevalence of specific Toxoplasma antibodies among the Malaysian population. The Malays have shown the highest seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, by most studies, when compared to other races. Demographic profiles have shown that Toxoplasma seropositivity is higher in males than females, lower in people with higher incomes, higher in the unemployed and tends to increase with age. In general, the route of transmission, such as contact with a cat, consumption of undercooked meat and blood transfusion were shown to have no significant association with Toxoplasma seropositivity (p > 0.05). The immune status (CD4 cell count < 200 cell/mm3) was strongly associated with toxoplasmic encephalitis (p < 0.05).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Malaysia / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Serologic Tests
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution
  • Toxoplasmosis / diagnosis*
  • Toxoplasmosis / epidemiology*