The pharmacokinetics of intravenous itraconazole (ITC) was studied in dialysis patients. Dialysis had no effect on the half-life and clearance of ITC or OH-ITC. However, dialysis allowed the clearance of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD). The area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0- infinity)) for HP-beta-CD administered before dialysis was lower than the AUC(0- infinity) when it was administered after dialysis (P < 0.01). Administration of ITC intravenously just prior to hemodialysis appears to produce adequate systemic exposures of ITC and OH-ITC while allowing dialysis clearance of HP-beta-CD. Studies of multiple administrations are warranted.