Mitochondrial proliferation during apoptosis induced by anticancer agents: effects of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone on cancer and cardiac cells

Oncogene. 2004 Sep 16;23(42):7018-30. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1207936.


Doxorubicin is one of the most largely prescribed antitumor drug for the treatment of breast, liver and colon cancers as well as leukemia, but the cardiotoxicity of this anthracycline derivative limits its clinical use. Although doxorubicin is toxic to both cancer and cardiac cells, there are evidences suggesting that the mechanism of cell death is different for the two cell types. To investigate further this issue, we have compared the proapoptotic effects of doxorubicin and the functionally related anthracenedione compound mitoxantrone, which is also used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer. After evaluating the toxicity of the two drugs to mammary adenocarcinoma MTLn3 cells and H9C2 cardiomyocytes, we dissected the drug-induced apoptotic machinery by measuring the effects on the cell cycle progression, DNA condensation and fragmentation, production of endogenous peroxides and caspase activation. Both doxorubicin and mitoxantrone are potent inducers of apoptosis in H9C2 cardiomyocytes and MTLn3 breast cancer cells, but there are significant differences between the two cell types in terms of kinetics and order of the events. In particular, flow cytometry measurements of drug-induced changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and mitochondrial mass with different fluorescent probes suggested that the two drugs induced a progressive increase in mitochondrial mass in the cancer cells but not in the cardiac cells. The hypothesis was validated by means of electron microscopy, which revealed a significant increase in the number of mitochondria in drug-treated MTLn3 but not in H9C2 cells. The mitochondrial proliferation precedes the nuclear apoptosis in doxorubicin-treated MTLn3 cells. The changes in the architecture and number of mitochondria are linked to the drug-induced perturbation of the cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The proliferation of mitochondria could explain the higher toxicity of doxorubicin to cancer cells compared to cardiac cells and this suggests novel therapeutic opportunities to better control the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacology*
  • Doxorubicin / toxicity
  • Female
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / drug effects
  • Mitochondria / pathology*
  • Mitochondria / ultrastructure*
  • Mitochondria, Heart / drug effects
  • Mitochondria, Heart / ultrastructure*
  • Mitoxantrone / pharmacology


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Doxorubicin
  • Mitoxantrone