Clinical outcomes of patent foramen ovale closure for paradoxical emboli without echocardiographic guidance

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2004 Aug;62(4):519-25. doi: 10.1002/ccd.20121.


The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of device closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) for presumed paradoxical emboli without echocardiographic guidance or balloon sizing and the clinical outcome after device closure. Closure of the PFO has been proposed as an alternative to anticoagulation in patients with presumed paradoxical emboli. At present, most centers perform device closure with transesophageal echocardiographic guidance and balloon sizing of the defect. Between May 1998 and April 2002, 92 consecutive patients underwent device closure for a PFO using fluoroscopic monitoring only. Procedural success and major complications were recorded. Follow-up outcomes were recurrence rate and residual atrial shunting on transthoracic echocardiography. All patients (mean age, 45 +/- 13 years; 52% male) had successful device deployment using either the CardioSeal (n = 78) and Amplatzer (n = 14) PFO occluders with no major complications. Mean procedure time and fluoroscopy time was 27 +/- 13 and 6 +/- 4 min, respectively. One patient had a residual shunt on echocardiography at 1 year. Cumulative event-free survival for recurrence of paradoxical embolus at 1 year was 97.3% +/- 1.8%. This study provides a basis for device closure of PFO becoming a safe, day-case procedure, resulting in a low rate of residual shunting and recurrent thromboembolic events.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Cardiac Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Catheterization / instrumentation*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Echocardiography, Doppler, Color
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal
  • Embolism, Paradoxical / complications
  • Embolism, Paradoxical / diagnostic imaging
  • Embolism, Paradoxical / etiology*
  • Embolism, Paradoxical / therapy
  • Equipment Design
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / complications
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / diagnostic imaging
  • Foramen Ovale, Patent / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / diagnostic imaging
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / etiology*
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Research Design
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke / diagnostic imaging
  • Stroke / etiology*
  • Stroke / therapy
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anticoagulants