The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of shortening on the stretch-induced force enhancement in single muscle fibers, and indirectly test the hypothesis that force enhancement may be associated with the engagement of a passive element upon activation. Fibers were placed on the descending limb of the force-length relationship, and stretch and shortening contractions were performed. Fibers underwent two sets of shortening-stretch cycles. First, fibers were shortened by a fixed amplitude and speed (10% fiber length, and at 40% fiber length/s), and then were stretched (10% fiber length, and at 40% fiber length/s) immediately following shortening, or 500 or 1000 ms following the shortening. Second, fibers were shortened by varying amounts (5%, 10% and 15% fiber length) and at a constant speed (40% fiber length/s) immediately preceding a given fiber stretch (10% fiber length, and at 40% fiber length/s). When stretching was immediately preceded by shortening, force enhancement was decreased proportionally with the shortening magnitude. When intervals were introduced between shortening and stretch, the effects of shortening on the stretch-induced force enhancement became less prominent. We concluded that, in contrast to published suggestions, shortening affects the stretch-induced force enhancement in an amplitude-dependent manner in single fibers, as it does in whole muscles, but this effect is diminished by increasing the time period between the shortening and stretch phases.