Neonatal seizures typically indicate significant underlying disease.They are poorly classified, under-recognized, and often difficult to treat. Recognition of etiology is often helpful in prognosis and treatment; the most common is hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Patients generally have a poor prognosis, with most developing a severe encephalopathy and epilepsy. Studies suggest that neonatal seizures and their etiology have a significant impact on the developing brain; it is critical to recognize seizures early and initiate immediate antiepileptic therapy. Continuous computerized simultaneous video electroencephalograph monitoring is imperative;at-risk infants will frequently have electrographic seizures without clinical manifestations. Although there are antiepileptic therapies for neonatal seizures, they are ineffective in over 35% of cases. The goal of research should be the development of more effective therapies for neonatal seizures, regardless of etiology.