Sequencing and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pLVPK of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43

Gene. 2004 Aug 4;337:189-98. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.05.008.


We have determined the entire DNA sequence of pLVPK, which is a 219-kb virulence plasmid harbored in a bacteremic isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. A total of 251 open reading frames (ORFs) were annotated, of which 37% have homologous genes of known function, 31% match the hypothetical genes in the GenBank database, and the remaining 32% are novel sequences. The obvious virulence-associated genes carried by the plasmid are the capsular polysaccharide synthesis regulator rmpA and its homolog rmpA2, and multiple iron-acquisition systems, including iucABCDiutA and iroBCDN siderophore gene clusters, Mesorhizobium loti fepBC ABC-type transporter, and Escherichia coli fecIRA, which encodes a Fur-dependent regulatory system for iron uptake. In addition, several gene clusters homologous with copper, silver, lead, and tellurite resistance genes of other bacteria were also identified. Identification of a replication origin consisting of a repA gene lying in between two sets of iterons suggests that the replication of pLVPK is iteron-controlled and the iterons are the binding sites for the repA to initiate replication and maintain copy number of the plasmid. Genes homologous with E. coli sopA/sopB and parA/parB with nearby direct DNA repeats were also identified indicating the presence of an F plasmid-like partitioning system. Finally, the presence of 13 insertion sequences located mostly at the boundaries of the aforementioned gene clusters suggests that pLVPK was derived from a sequential assembly of various horizontally acquired DNA fragments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Composition
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA Replication / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial / genetics
  • Genes, Bacterial / genetics
  • Iron / metabolism
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / genetics*
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / metabolism
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae / pathogenicity
  • Metals, Heavy / pharmacology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family / genetics
  • Plasmids / genetics*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Virulence / genetics


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Iron

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AY378100