The meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC) vaccine programme in England has successfully controlled the incidence of serogroup C disease, as a result of high short-term vaccine effectiveness and substantial herd immunity. However, the long-term effectiveness of the vaccine remains unknown. We assessed surveillance data from the 4 years since introduction of the programme. Vaccine effectiveness remained high in children vaccinated in the catch-up campaign (aged 5 months to 18 years). However, for children vaccinated in the routine infant immunisation programme, the effectiveness of the MCC vaccine fell to low levels after only 1 year. The number of individuals in these cohorts remains low, but alternative routine immunisation schedules should be considered to ensure high levels of protection are sustained.