The cancer patient receiving chemotherapy often suffers severe oral complications related to the administration of antineoplastic drugs. Cancer patients who also have transmucosal or endosseous dental implants pose special problems for medical oncologists and dentists, both when planning for chemotherapy and when providing supportive care during the course of treatment. The relationship between dental implants and cancer chemotherapy is described and complications experienced by implant patients treated with chemotherapy at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center are reviewed. Recommendations on various aspects of management involving implant evaluation and the removal or retention of dental implants are discussed.