The Hartford study of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Jun;72(3):479-90. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.72.3.479.


The authors compared 3 approaches to vocational rehabilitation for severe mental illness (SMI): the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment, a psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) program, and standard services. Two hundred four unemployed clients (46% African American, 30% Latino) with SMI were randomly assigned to IPS, PSR, or standard services and followed for 2 years. Clients in IPS had significantly better employment outcomes than clients in PSR and standard services, including more competitive work (73.9% vs. 18.2% vs. 27.5%, respectively) and any paid work (73.9% vs. 34.8% vs. 53.6%, respectively). There were few differences in nonvocational outcomes between programs. IPS is a more effective model than PSR or standard brokered vocational services for improving employment outcomes in clients with SMI.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Employment, Supported*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / psychology*
  • Severity of Illness Index