Objective: Advanced glycoxidation end products (AGEs), the derivatives of glucose-protein or glucose-lipid interactions, are implicated in the complications of diabetes and aging. The objective of this article was to determine the AGE content of commonly consumed foods and to evaluate the effects of various methods of food preparation on AGE production.
Design: Two-hundred fifty foods were tested for their content in a common AGE marker (epsilon)N-carboxymethyllysine (CML), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on an anti-CML monoclonal antibody. Lipid and protein AGEs were represented in units of AGEs per gram of food.
Results: Foods of the fat group showed the highest amount of AGE content with a mean of 100+/-19 kU/g. High values were also observed for the meat and meat-substitute group, 43+/-7 kU/g. The carbohydrate group contained the lowest values of AGEs, 3.4+/-1.8 kU/g. The amount of AGEs present in all food categories was related to cooking temperature, length of cooking time, and presence of moisture. Broiling (225 degrees C) and frying (177 degrees C) resulted in the highest levels of AGEs, followed by roasting (177 degrees C) and boiling (100 degrees C).
Conclusions: The results indicate that diet can be a significant environmental source of AGEs, which may constitute a chronic risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney damage.