The optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings, clinical features, and mutations in the RS1 gene of two unrelated patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) are reported herein. Two Chinese patients with early onset XLRS were given a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and OCT investigation. The RS1 gene was screened for sequence alterations in all exons and splice regions. The two patients presented with different phenotypic features and OCT findings. One patient with more severe clinical presentation had a RS1 exon 1 deletion and a P193S mutation was found in the other patient with mild macular involvement. OCT demonstrates the markedly different features of XLRS patients with different RS1 mutations. This study strengthens the role of OCT in the diagnosis and monitoring of XLRS.