Protein kinase C and beyond

Nat Immunol. 2004 Aug;5(8):785-90. doi: 10.1038/ni1097.


Protein kinase C molecules regulate both positive and negative signal transduction pathways essential for the initiation and homeostasis of immune responses. There are multiple isoforms of protein kinase C that are activated differently by calcium and diacylglycerol, and these are activated mainly by antigen receptors in T cells, B cells and mast cells. Additionally, mammals express several other diacylglycerol binding proteins that are linked to a network of key signal transduction pathways that control lymphocyte biology. Diacylglycerol and protein kinase C regulate a broad range of gene transcription programs but also modulate integrins, chemokine responses and antigen receptors, thereby regulating lymphocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation and proliferation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diglycerides / immunology
  • Diglycerides / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / drug effects
  • Isoenzymes / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • Lymphocytes / enzymology
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Protein Kinase C / drug effects
  • Protein Kinase C / immunology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*


  • Diglycerides
  • Isoenzymes
  • Protein Kinase C