An integrative review of literature was undertaken to examine the impact of children's mental health on their school success. The literature confirmed a confluence of problems associated with school performance and child and adolescent mental health. Poor academic functioning and inconsistent school attendance were identified as early signs of emerging or existing mental health problems during childhood and adolescence. Among the goals of school nursing is to provide a process for identification and resolution of students' health needs as they affect educational achievement. Thus, it is within the scope of practice and goals of school nursing to also address children's mental health needs, as they affect school performance. This review of literature supports the conclusion that school nursing is well positioned to respond to the need for mental health promotion, illness prevention, and early intervention related to children's mental health.