Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has resulted in a profound clinical stage migration. Extracapsular extension (ECE) presents a poor prognosis after radical prostatectomy (RP). In this study the trends in rate of ECE for cancers detected by PSA screening between 1987, when PSA screening became routine in the United States, and 2001, were examined. The clinical outcome of patients (total 1505; 888 clinical Tlc, 614 clinical T2, and 3 clinical T3) with prostate cancer diagnosed by PSA screening and treated with RP without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was analyzed. The primary outcome variable was ECE rate with respect to year of treatment for a given tumor stage, preoperative PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and surgical Gleason score. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of ECE. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) by year of treatment was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier Curve. Rate of ECE decreased from 65.8 to 25.2% during the 15-year study duration. Multivariate analysis of clinical tumor stage, age, preoperative serum PSA level, and Gleason score confirmed that year of treatment was an independent predictor of ECE. Six-year bRFS rates (by years of treatment) were 75.1% for 1987 to 1994 and 82.6% for 1995 to 2001 (P-value = 0.0022). PSA screening has resulted in a downward pathological stage migration. These observations demonstrate improved biochemical failure rates in more recently treated patients.
Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.