Relative impact of covariates in prescribing warfarin according to CYP2C9 genotype

Pharmacogenetics. 2004 Aug;14(8):539-47. doi: 10.1097/01.fpc.0000114760.08559.dc.


Patients on warfarin anticoagulant therapy demonstrate wide variation in maintenance dose. Patients possessing variants (*2 and *3) of the cytochrome P450 2C9 gene require reduced maintenance doses compared to those having wild-type alleles (*1). Many other clinical factors have been shown to affect warfarin dose as well. To determine the relative impact of CYP2C9 genotype, age, gender, body surface area, concomitant medication, treatment indication and comorbidity, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in 453 patients managed by the anticoagulation service of a large, horizontally integrated, multispecialty group practice. In this largely Caucasian patient population, the CYP2C9 gene frequencies for *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3, *2/*2, *2/*3 and *3/*3 were 65.1%, 19.0%, 12.1%, 1.6%, 1.8% and 0.4%, respectively, approximating Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Mean maintenance doses for these genotypes were 36.5, 29.1, 23.5, 28.0, 18.1 and 5.5 mg/week, respectively. In univariate analyses, genotype alone accounted for 19.8% of the variability in maintenance dose. Age, body surface area and male gender accounted for 14.6%, 7.5% and 4.7%, respectively, while cardiac valve replacement as the indication for warfarin accounted for 5.4% of the variability. Collectively, these factors accounted for 33.7% of all dosing variability according to multiple regression. These results will help strengthen the mathematical models that are currently being developed for prospective gene-based warfarin dosing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use*
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Drug Interactions
  • Drug Resistance
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genotype
  • Heart Valves / pathology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Thromboembolism / diagnosis
  • Thromboembolism / genetics
  • Warfarin / therapeutic use*
  • White People


  • Anticoagulants
  • Warfarin
  • CYP2C9 protein, human
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases