Correlates of immune protection in HIV-1 infection: what we know, what we don't know, what we should know

Nat Med. 2004 Aug;10(8):806-10. doi: 10.1038/nm0804-806.


The field of vaccinology began in ignorance of how protection was instilled in vaccine recipients. Today, a greater knowledge of immunology allows us to better understand what is being stimulated by various vaccines that leads to their protective effects: that is, their correlates of protection. Here we describe what is known about the correlates of protection for existing vaccines against a range of different viral diseases and discuss the correlates of protection against disease during natural infection with HIV-1. We will also discuss why it is important to design phase 3 clinical trials of HIV vaccines to determine the correlates of protection for each individual vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Vaccines / immunology*
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular / immunology
  • Monitoring, Immunologic / methods
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*


  • AIDS Vaccines