Objective: To estimate age- and gender-specific prevalences of ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in adult Latinos.
Design: Population-based, cross-sectional study.
Participants: Six thousand three hundred fifty-seven Latinos 40 years and older from 6 census tracts in Los Angeles, California.
Methods: The study cohort consisted of all self-identified Latinos of primarily Mexican ancestry 40 years and older residing in 6 census tracts in La Puente, California. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field (VF) testing using an automated field analyzer, and simultaneous stereoscopic fundus photography of the optic disc. Ocular hypertension was defined as IOP of >21 mmHg and the absence of optic disc damage or abnormal VF test results. Open-angle glaucoma was defined as the presence of an open angle and various criteria that included a glaucomatous VF abnormality and/or evidence of glaucomatous optic disc damage in at least one eye.
Main outcome measures: Prevalence of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
Results: For the 6142 participants who underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination at the clinical center, the prevalence of OAG was 4.74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.22%-5.30%). The prevalence of ocular hypertension was 3.56% (95% CI, 3.12%-4.06%). The prevalences of OAG and ocular hypertension were higher in older Latinos than in younger Latinos (P<0.0001). No gender-related differences in prevalences of OAG and ocular hypertension were present. The mean IOP, mean deviation, and mean vertical cup-disc ratio in persons with OAG were 17 mmHg, -9.6 decibels, and 0.6, respectively. Seventy-five percent of Latinos with OAG and 75% of Latinos with ocular hypertension were previously undiagnosed. Further, 17% of Latinos with OAG and 23% of Latinos with ocular hypertension had received treatment for "glaucoma."
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the prevalence of OAG is high among Latinos of Mexican ancestry. The higher prevalence of OAG in older Latinos emphasizes the public health importance of providing eye care services for the early diagnosis and management of this condition in Latinos.