(Pro)Insulin processing: a historical perspective

Cell Biochem Biophys. 2004;40(3 Suppl):143-58. doi: 10.1385/cbb:40:3:143.

Abstract

Insulin, the major secreted product of the beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans, is initially synthesized as a precursor (preproinsulin), from which the mature hormone is excised by a series of proteolytic cleavages. This review provides a personal narrative of some of the key research projects leading to the identification of the central processing enzymes as proprotein convertase 1, proprotein convertase 2, and carboxypeptidase E. It also discusses the central roles of the intragranular environment and chaperone-like proteins in modulating processing activity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Carboxypeptidase H / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proinsulin / metabolism*
  • Proprotein Convertase 1 / metabolism*
  • Proprotein Convertase 2 / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Trypsin / chemistry

Substances

  • Insulin
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Proinsulin
  • Carboxypeptidase H
  • Trypsin
  • Proprotein Convertase 1
  • Proprotein Convertase 2