Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention

Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):64-105. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64.


The authors suggest that the most promising route to effective strategies for the prevention of adolescent alcohol and other drug problems is through a risk-focused approach. This approach requires the identification of risk factors for drug abuse, identification of methods by which risk factors have been effectively addressed, and application of these methods to appropriate high-risk and general population samples in controlled studies. The authors review risk and protective factors for drug abuse, assess a number of approaches for drug abuse prevention potential with high-risk groups, and make recommendations for research and practice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / prevention & control*
  • Alcoholism / psychology
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Substance-Related Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology


  • Illicit Drugs