Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a lung collectin with diverse immunoregulatory activities. SP-A regulates the innate host defense by enhancing phagocytosis of pathogens and modulating the production of nitric oxide and cytokines by immune cells. Additionally, SP-A also modulates the phenotypic and functional properties of the cells of adaptive immune response such as dendritic cells (DCs) and lymphocytes. Bone marrow-derived DCs generated in the presence of SP-A fail to increase lipopolysaccharide-induced upregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD86 costimulatory molecule on DCs surface and behaves like "tolerogenic DCs". SP-A may also induce tolerance by suppressing the proliferation of activated T lymphocytes. Thus, based on immunoregulatory properties of SP-A, it may be employed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of autoimmune disease and organ transplantation.