Objectives: This study was conducted to detect the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae within the faecal flora of both community- and hospital-based patients in York and to characterize the bla(TEM), bla(SHV) and bla(CTX-M) genes present in these isolates.
Methods: One thousand faeces samples were collected and screened at York Hospital during October-December 2003. Ninety-five non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were recovered; 22 isolates were selected for further study on the basis of a positive double disc diffusion test for ESBL production. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed to a range of antibiotics. The TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes were detected by PCR and the DNA sequenced.
Results: The distribution of ESBL-positive isolates from the hospital and community was 1.4:1. These included nine Escherichia coli, seven Enterobacter cloacae, four Citrobacter freundii and a single isolate each of Klebsiella spp. and Salmonella spp. A total of 17 isolates contained bla(CTX-M) (five bla(CTX-M-15), three bla(CTX-M-14) and nine bla(CTX-M-9)). ISEcp1 was present in isolates expressing CTX-M-14 and -15, but was absent upstream of In60-associated bla(CTX-M-9). E. coli isolates also contained either a bla(TEM-1) or bla(TEM-2), whereas six of the E. cloacae carried bla(SHV-12) and the Klebsiella spp. bla(SHV-36) in addition to bla(CTX-M-9). The single Salmonella spp. carried bla(SHV-12).
Conclusions: The overall prevalence of ESBL in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from York was 1.9%. ESBL-producing isolates were found in both the community and hospital, with the CTX-M type most common. This is also the first report of an ESBL-producing Salmonella in the UK.