Objective: This study was performed to define the subgroups of patients who benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I and II endometrial carcinoma.
Methods: A retrospective review of 170 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I and II endometrial carcinoma patients treated between 1988 and 2000 at Niigata University Hospital was performed. All patients underwent surgery, of which 41 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of intravenous cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Multivariate analysis was performed for the prognostic factors and actuarial techniques were used for the survival and recurrence rates.
Results: The patients were divided into low-risk and high-risk groups based on the number of prognostic factors (tumor grade G3, outer half myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), and cervical invasion). The 5-year disease-free survival and the 5-year overall survival for the low-risk group were 97.4%, and 100%, respectively, which were significantly better than 77.4% and 88.1% for the high-risk group (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), respectively. Among high-risk group patients, the 5-year disease-free survival and the 5-year overall survival were 88.5% and 95.2% in 26 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, and 50.0% and 62.5% in eight cases who underwent only surgery (P = 0.0150, P = 0.0226). Disease recurrence occurred in 7 (20.6%) of 34 high-risk group patients. Four of seven recurrences occurred in patients who did not receive postoperative chemotherapy, in which all four were distant failure. In the remaining three patients who were in the CAP group, two had vaginal wall recurrence and only one had pulmonary recurrence. Three recurrences were also observed in the 133 low-risk group patients. Only isolated vaginal wall recurrence occurred in three patients without adjuvant chemotherapy after the initial surgery.
Conclusions: There is possibility that postoperative adjuvant CAP may be omitted in surgical stage I or II endometrial cancer patients with 0 or 1 prognostic factor. The high-risk group of patients should be treated with postoperative adjuvant CAP to decrease distant failure and improve prognosis.