Many hematological and immunological parameters remain unclear in the study of the guinea pig. In this study, we established the mean values of blood counts, the percentage of leukocyte fractions and lymphocyte subsets in blood and various lymphoid tissues of the guinea pig with a flow cytometric procedure using MIL4/SSC. The mean counts of WBC and RBC in the blood were lower, and MCV and MCH were higher than those of other rodents, resembling those of humans. Furthermore, the mean percentages of blood lymphocytes were smaller and that of granulocyte was larger than those of other rodents, resembling those of humans. We further established a flow cytometric procedure for lymphocyte subsets and clarified the mean percentages of T- and B-cells, CD4(+)-, CD8(+)- and MHC Class II(+)- T-cells, and CD4(-)CD8 (-) T-cells. The latter were morphologically larger in cell size and cytoplasm than CD4(+)- plus CD8(+) T-cells, and this subset had a significantly higher percentage in newborn animals. Furthermore, the appearance of the MHC Class II(+) T-cell subset was suggested to be a marker of hyper-activation of T-cells in BCG-immunized animals. Thus, both the novel flow cytometric procedure for leukocyte fractions and lymphocyte subsets, and the established normal values will be useful tools in studying guinea pigs as models of various diseases and biological phenomena.