Adrafinil-induced orofacial dyskinesia

Mov Disord. 2004 Aug;19(8):965-6. doi: 10.1002/mds.20154.


We describe the first case of orofacial abnormal movements induced by adrafinil, a vigilance promoting agent of the same pharmacological class as modafinil. The dyskinesias did not spontaneously recover despite adrafinil withdrawal for a 4-month period. They were secondly dramatically improved by tetrabenazine, a presynaptic dopaminergic depleting drug which was introduced after the 4-month adrafinil-free period.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Dyskinesia Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects*
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / drug therapy
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxamic Acids / adverse effects*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Tetrabenazine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Dyskinesia Agents
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • adrafinil
  • Tetrabenazine